DNA Structure! DNA-colored.gif
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FUN FACT!
If you unwrap all your DNA, you could reach the moon and back 6000 times!

Alright kiddies, open up your learn-holes, and prepare to be knowed. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid. It stores and transmits the genetic information needed to create the proteins that program your body. It's shape was discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick.

DNA is in the shape of a double helix and codes for just about everything in your body. The helix is made up of nucleotides. The nucleotides consists of a phosphate, a sugar, and a base. The sugar is deoxyribose, the phosphate is a phosphorous and oxygen. and the base is one of the 4 bases. The bases are what code for all the proteins in your body. There are 4 bases. A (Adenine), G (Guanine), T (Thymine), C (Cytosine). This creates the two polynucleic strands that are wrapped around each other. The bases are held together by hydrogen bonds


That Spells DNA - Jonathan Coulton

DNA Replication!

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**DNA Replication Animation**
DNA replication starts with the breaking apart of the DNA strands. The Helicase breaks apart the hydrogen bonds to do this. The binding protein then are used to hold the strand apart. Next an RNA primer is laid down by the Primase. This signals the starting point of replication on the leading strand. The Polymerase then builds the rest of the strand straight from there. Finally the Polymerase replaces the original RNA primer with DNA.

Because the helix uncoils in opposite directions, the lagging strand takes a much more difficult process to replicate. The Primase must create multiple RNA primers, then the Polymerase is able to create a small strand of DNA between the primers. Then the Polymerase replaces all primers with DNA. Finally, since it was done in fragments, the Ligase goes over the new strand and makes sure all strands are bound together. These pieces on the lagging strand are often called Okazaki fragments.



~~DNA page by Steve~~