Life Molecules
  • Carbohydrates
    • (Sugars)
    • Organic compounds composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
    • Function is to provide your body with energy
    • Examples include: external image image003.jpg
      • sugars, bread, and pasta
    • Monosaccharide
      • Building blocks of carbohydrates
      • Simple sugars (only one molecule) (monomer)
      • Most common sugars are (natural sugars):
        • Glucose (fuel for cells), galactose (milk), and fructose (sweetest, found in fruits)
    • Disaccharide
      • Two monosaccharides combined to form a double sugar
      • Condensation and dehydration are how disaccharides are formed
    • Polysaccharide
      • A complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides
      • Examples:
        • Glycogen (link together to store extra glucose), starch, and cellulose
      • Polymer





  • Proteins
    • Polymer made up of 20 different monomers external image proteins.jpg
    • Are the primary part of many body tissues
    • Function is to help build muscle mass
    • Examples:




      • Meat / fish, eggs, and nuts / peanut butter
    • Amino Acids
      • Function is the building blocks of proteins
      • Structure contains function groups
        • Carboxyl (COOH) and Amino (NH2)
      • Have peptide bonds (strong)
    • Enzymes
      • Function is to increase the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the amount of energy needed to start a reaction (activation energy)
      • Role is that it acts as a Catalysts (speeds up chemical reactions without being consumed in the reaction)




  • Lipids
    • Fat
    • Function is to build cell membranes external image P-lipid.gif
    • Examples:
      • From plant – healthy, from animal – not as healthy
      • Oil and anything high in fat (peanut butter, donuts, anything fired)
      • Ear wax
    • Fatty Acids
      • Building blocks of lipids
      • Functional group is
        • Carboxyl (COOH)
      • Can be:
        • Unsaturated, saturated, polysaturated, trans
        • Healthy à unhealthy
    • Steroids
    • Lipids protect



external image dna_versus_rna_reversed.jpg
  • Nucleic Acids
    • Function is to store important information for the cell
    • They are large, complex organic (carbon) molecules
    • DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid)
      • Contains information essential for cell activities
      • It is like a recipe box that holds all the recipes
      • Made up of three parts:
        • Phosphate group, sugar, and nitrogenous base
    • RNA (RiboNucleic Acid)
      • Stores and transfers information for making proteins
      • It reads the recipe (DNA) to make the proteins
      • Also made up of the same three parts:
        • Phosphate group, sugar, and nitrogenous base





  • Functional Groups
    • Clusters of atoms that influence the properties of the molecule they compose
    • Amino Group
      • NH2 (add COOH and get a protein)
    • Hydroxyl Group
      • OH (alcohol)
    • Carboxyl Group
      • COOH (fatty acid)




  • Characteristics of Carbon

    • Carbon needs four electrons
    • Each hydrogen needs one electron
      external image carbon-hydrogen-e-dots.gif






Click hereor a video about nucleic acids and DNA
Click here for an animation