Cell Quiz




  1. Explain the route protein takes from start to finish
  2. What organelle is the "power house" of the animal cell? What powers an animal cell?
  3. Out of hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic, which state is ideal for a cell to be in, and why?
  4. Define "osmosis."
  5. Chronologically list stages of mitosis.
  6. What types of cells and how many cells come from mitosis?
  7. What is the control center of a cell?
  8. What are the two different types of cell-based organsims? Define both.
  9. Compare and contrast plant cells and animal cells.
  10. What is the purpose of both ER's (rough and smooth)?
  11. How many chromosomes are in a sex cell ?
  12. How many chromosomes are in a normal body cell?
  13. What is the importance of mitochondrial DNA?
  14. Explain the three stages (G1, S, and G2) of interphase.
  15. In what faze of mitosis do the spindles attach to the chromosomes and pull them to opposite poles?
  16. What does the golgi apparatus sort/re-check?
  17. What are the differneces bewtween Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis?
  18. Explain the differences between Exocytosis and Endocytosis.
  19. What incidences will launch mitosis, or the replication of cells
  20. What are the three aspects to the Cell Theory?
Challenge: List every organelle and its function for plant and animal cells.

















Answers:
1) RNA is created from DNA in the nucleus. The RNA contains the code for protein. The RNA enters a ribosome and begins making the protein. The ribosome, containing protein, then passes through the smooth and rough ER where it will continue to create protein.
2) Mitochondria, chloroplasts
3) Isotonic - there are equal amounts of water/solute outside and inside the cell, making the cell neither bloated or shriveled
4) Osmosis is the movement of water in and out of a cell
5) Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telephase
6) Body cells, 2 cells
7) Nucleus/ Nucleolus
8) Prokaryotic - simple organism, no membrane-bound organelles, and Eukaryotic - complex organism, membrane-bound organelles
9) Both contain plasma membrane, nucleus, nuclear envelope, nucleolus, smooth and rough ER, ribosomes, golgi apparatus, peroxisomes, and a cytoskeleton. Only animal cells contain cilia/flagellum, lysosomes, and mitochondria. Only plant cels contain large central vacuoles, chloroplasts, and cell walls.
10) Both are an extension of nuclear membrane, Smooth - Synthesize lipids, Rough - Transports ribosomes
11) 23
12) 46
13) Mitochondrial DNA comes from a mother only
14) G1 - growth phase, S - everything within the cell doubles, G2- second growth phase
15) Anaphase
16) Important molecules
17) Pinocytosis is when a cell takes in liquid (cell drinking,) and Phagocytosis is when a cell takes in a nutrient molecule (cell eating.)
18) Exocytosis is when something from within the cell exits it though the plasma membrane, endocytosis is when a molecule outside of the cell membrane enters the cell
19) When you get a cut and it needs to scab over, skin cells are always dividing because skin cells are always dying and rubbing off our skin, etc.
20) 1 - All living things are made up of one or more cells, 2 - cells are the basic units of structure and function in all living things, 3 - all cells come from preexisting cells
Challenge) The Plasma Membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and separates the internal environment from the external environment. It is composed of a lipid bilayer and is a selectively permeable membrane because it allows water molecules to diffuse through the bilayer.
The Nucleus is the control center of the cell. It is the largest organelle in an animal cell and it contains DNA.
Nuclear Envelope: Double-layer membrane that surrounds the nucleus
Nucleolus: Synthesizes ribosomes
The Endoplasmic Reticulum is an extension of the nuclear membrane.
Rough E.R.: Transports ribosomes
Smooth E.R.: Synthesizes lipids
Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis and are the smallest organelle in the cell.
The Golgi Apparatus sorts, chemically alters, and packages important molecules.
Peroxisomes detoxify harmful substances that enter the cell.
The Cytoskeleton helps support cell structure and drive cell movement.
Cilia: short, hair-like extensions on the cell that aid in cell movement (Animal Cells Only)
Flagellum: a long, hair-like extension on a cell that helps the cell propel (Animal Cells Only)
Lysosomes are responsible for intracellular digestion and are only found in animal cells. They are membranous sacs of acidic enzymes and are sometimes called 'suicide sacs.' (Generally, Animal Cells Only)
Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration generate fuel for the cell's activities.(Animal Cells Only)
The Vacuole stores extra material for the cell such as nutrients and water and is the largest organelle in the plant cell. (Generally, Plant Cells Only)
Chloroplasts are the sites for photosynthesis and are only found in plant cells. Chlorophyll pigments in the chloroplasts gives plants their color. (Plant Cells Only)
Cell Wall: Structure outside of a plant cell that gives the cell its rigid, boxy shape. (Plant Cells Only)