Time to synthesize!


Protein synthesis starts with transcription, the making of RNA from DNA. Transcription takes place in the nucleus. Transcription uses many of the same enzymes as DNA replication, helicase, which separates the two DNA strands, primase,
which marks the direction for transcription, and polymerase, which does the laying down of the bases, and making the mRNA. Transcription is shown clearly in
thisanimation The mRNA then leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pores, and goes to a ribosome for translation.
Translation is the process in which mRNA is read in order to create a polypeptide chain that will eventually become a protein. mRNA is always described in groups of three nucleotides called codons. Each codon codes for a specific amino acid attached by a peptide bond to tRNA which contains the anti-codon. 10_08aGeneticCode_L.jpgTo the right is the codon chart, which allows us to figure out the specific amino acid each codon will code for.
As Translation continues, each amino acid attaches to the next tRNA's amino acid by a peptide bond, eventually making a polypeptide chain as they keep linking. This polypeptide chain, once complete, will bend and make itself into a protein based on the carges of the amino acids.
Below is a graphic of the entire process of protein synthesis, starting with DNA, which then transcribes an mRNA molecule from itself. The mRNA then goes to the ribosome for Translation, which creates a polypeptide chain. This video takes you through all the stages of protein synthesis from beginning to end.