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Cell Theory
1) All living things are composed of one or more cells
2) Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all living things
3) All cells come from preexisting cells

Discovery of the Cell
  • 1665
  • English Scientist Robert Hooke
  • Observed cork cells (plant cells)
  • Looked like the small cells, or boxes, that monks lived in, hence the name "cell"

Cell Diversity
Shape - Diversity of the form of a cell reflects its function
Size - Microscopic, unable to see with the naked eye

The Cell Wall is in plant cells only! It surrounds the cell membrane, and it's function is to help protect and support the cell.

The Cytoplasm is the fluid-filled area between the nucleus and the cell membrane.

The Nucleus is the control center of the cell, and it contains DNA. It is found only in eukaryotic cells, and it is the largest organelle in the plant cell.

Nuclear Envelope is a double layer membrane, covered with small pores.

The Nucleolus synthesizes ribosomes, which are important in making proteins for the cell.

The Endoplasmic Reticulum is the extension of the nuclear membrane- the Rough ER regions with ribosomes, and transports ribosomes. The Smooth ER regions without ribosomes, and synthesizes lipids.

Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis and have two subunits; the smallest organelle in the cell.

The Golgi Apparatus sorts, chemically alters, and packages important molecules.

Mitochondria generates fuel for the cell's activities and is the site of cellular respiration.

Chloroplasts are the site for photosynthesis, and chlorophyll pigmens gives plants their color

Lysosomes are responsible for intracellular digestion, and they are membranous sacs of scidic enzymes.

Peroxisomes detoxify harmful substances that enter the body.

Vacuoles stores extra material for the cell (nutrients, water, etc.) and they are the largest organelle in the plant cell.

The Cytoskeleton helps support cell structure and drive cell movement.

Cilia are short, hair-like extensions and on the cell that aid in cell movement.

Flagella are long, hair-like extensions on a cell that helps the cell propel.


Brown, Terry. “Cell Structure and Function.” Wildcat Science. 1999. 29 Jan. 2009 <‌WESTMIN/‌science/‌sbi3a1/‌Cells/‌cells.htm>.
Campbell, Neil A,, et al. Biology Concepts and Connections. 5th ed. San Francisco: Pearson, 2006.
“Facilitated Diffusion.” 2000-2007. 29 Jan. 2009 <‌vcafe/‌100217>.
Northland College Department of Biology. 29 Jan. 2009 <‌biology/‌BIOLOGY1111/‌animations/‌active1.swf>.